omega 3 e omega 6 – benefici per la salute del cane
Questo argomento contiene 127 risposte, ha 27 partecipanti, ed è stato aggiornato da ela 7 mesi fa.
Giugno 6, 2014 alle 10:45 pm #69831
vero se consideriamo l’affermazione nel suo complesso (e cioe se siamo interessati agli acidi grassi essenziali) ma falso se consideriamo il punto di vista generale (e cioè che le crocchette con olio di pesce sono da preferire a quelle con semi di lino);
Io preferisco una crocchetta con olio di pesce ad una con semi di lino perché considero importanti gli Omega3. Tu mi stai dicendo che se hai davanti 2 crocchette uguali una integrata con olio di pesce e una con grani di lino (non olio di semi di lino), prendi quella con (solo) grani di lino?
Va infine detto che sui PUFA non è ancora stata data una parola definitiva dalla scienza (sia per l’uomo che per il cane), per cui i prossimi studi sicuramente faranno chiarezza sull’argomento e potranno anche ribaltar ealcuni concetti che sono dati attulmente per certi…
Quì stai usando 2 pesi e 2 misure: le ricerche sugli acidi grassi sono sicuramente più numerose di quelle sull’olio di semi di lino, non puoi mettere in discussione gli effetti positivi degli acidi grassi e prendere per certi quelli dei semi di lino.
Aggiungo anche che la scienza non ha ancora dato una una parola definitiva su molti degli effetti che benefici che vengono attribuiti agli acidi grassi Omega3, ma sui testi universitari di medicina sono ampiamente accettati gli effetti sui processi neuronali, sulla fluidità delle membrane e su quella del sangue. Che poi la ricerca possa in futuro ribaltare queste affermazioni non è da escludere, ma non è di certo un singolo studio a ribaltare concetti ampiamente accettati.Giugno 6, 2014 alle 10:49 pm #69832
- Genere: Maschio
concordo, su tutto dobbiamo fare la tara: purtroppo oggigiorno ci sono fin troppe sostanze “miracolose” che vengono propinate come panacea di ogni male…
io per esempio ho attribuito sempre tanta importanza al metilsulfenilmetano (MSM), che è un’altra di queste… come lo sono prebiotici (o probiotici?), FOS, MOS e quant’altro…
tutte queste “rivelazioni scientifiche” vanno prese con le dovute cautele, anche perché sia l’informazione che la controinformazione raramente è del tutto disinteressataGiugno 7, 2014 alle 8:11 pm #69857
per comprendermi devi partire dall’idea che nutro una grande stima nei confronti delle opinioni che scrivi su questo forum (e che leggo sempre con grande interesse) e, dall’idea che io integro il mangime di romeo con un eccellente olio di pesce per cui non sono contrario a dare una buona dose di omega3/6 al proprio cane; tuttavia ciò che dice Espada non è affatto infondato, e fare un affermazione come: “la crocchetta con olio di pesce è migliore di quella con semi di lino”, mi sembra (imho) spingersi troppo in là…
primo perchè esistono numerosi studi sugli effetti benefeci dei semi di lino (e del loro olio) in umani e cani;
secondo perche’ ‘olio di pesce’ generico, non vuol dire molto e se il mangime non è di una certa fascia, ci possiamo trovare difronte ad olii che gli omega3 ce li hanno solo sulla carta;
in tale contesto affermo (ma specifico che è solo una mia opinione personale) che a meno che non sappia che le crocchette sono olistiche e che usino olio di salmone selvaggio o equivalenti, se dovessi andare su una crocchetta economica ne preferirei una con semi di lino (che sono abbastanza economici ) ed integrerei con un buon olio di pesce ricco di omega3 (ad es il grizzly)…
terzo: perchè se il mio cane avesse un tumore o problemi di cuore, non avrei alcun dubbio sulla scelta, vista la potente azione dei lignani in tal ambiti…
quarto perchè se l’olio di pesce non è lavorato in un certo modo può essere ricco di metalli pesanti (quali mercurio etc) che a lungo andare sono nocivi per i nostri amici
quinto: perchè la vitamina ‘e’ decresce come biodisponibilità in base all’aumentare di pufa, per cui se somministriamo un mangime economico in cui la vit ‘e’ è scarsa o è calcolata prima del processo produttivo (come purtroppo molte volte mi capita di vedere), o è quella sintetica (dl-alpha-tocoferolo), potremmo trovarci a lungo andare in situazioni poco piacevoli
sesto: perche’ studi sugli omega3 ce ne sono molti è vero; purtroppo però sempre più studi documentano e mettono in guardia contro i numerosi danni in cani e gatti causati da alimenti ricchi di omega3 (anche qui l’atteggiamento prudenziale di Espada difficilmente può essere criticato) anche perchè essendo diventata un moda, le case produttrici possono ‘abbondare’ con tutti i problemi che ben conosciamo; se desideri approfondire, ad es materiale molto attendibile, ed affascinante sull’argomento è questo:
Potential Adverse Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dogs and Cats
C.E. Lenox and J.E. Bauer
Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of
several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic
differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in
dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3
fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.
Key words: Dietary fat; Dietary supplements; Nutraceuticals; Nutrition.
Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for benefits in management of several diseases and
often are recommended for management of clinical problems including neoplasia,1 dermatologic disease,2–4
hyperlipidemia,5,6 cardiovascular disease,7,8 renal disease,9,10 gastrointestinal disease,11,12 and orthopedic
disease.13–16 Because omega-3 fatty acids are nutrients used in the management of disease, they are considered
nutraceuticals. The term nutraceutical refers to a nutrient that has characteristics of a drug.17 Omega-3 fatty
acids, however, are different from drugs because relatively high doses of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are required for the treatment of disease as compared to most drugs,
because most commercial pet foods contain a source of omega-3 fatty acids, and because DHA and possibly
EPA are required nutrients for some lifestages (especially during growth and development). Like all drugs
and dietary supplements, there is potential for adverse effects with usage of omega-3 fatty acids, especially
when diets are supplemented with them or when they are present in diets in large amounts.
Currently, there are few commercial pet foods with EPA and DHA concentrations adequate for treatment
of disease. Joint diets, renal diets, and diets for dermatologic conditions typically contain more
omega-3 fatty acids than maintenance diets, but even therapeutic diets may not supply enough omega-3
fatty acids for treatment of disease. Target ranges for EPA and DHA vary quite widely for different conditions,
but typically fall between 50 and 220 mg/kg body weight. The higher dosages often are used to
lower serum triglyceride concentrations in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, whereas lower dosages are
more commonly used for inflammatory conditions, renal disease, and cardiac disease. Commercial diets
containing omega-3 fatty acids typically provide less EPA and DHA than desirable and may be advertised
as containing omega-3 fatty acids but contain flaxseed or canola oil (rich in alpha-linolenic acid
[ALA]) instead of fish oil. A discussion of the benefits of EPA and DHA as compared to ALA is
included in this review. Because of the lower concentrations of EPA and DHA as compared with other
omega-3 fatty acids and target concentrations, the authors frequently recommend supplementing EPA
and DHA in addition to using a diet containing omega-3 fatty acids.
The purpose of this review is to outline a number of potential adverse effects associated with use of
omega-3 fatty acids, with special focus on adverse effects of EPA and DHA supplementation.
This topic was reviewed by Hall in 1996,18 but the increase in research in the area in both humans and
animals, the increase in clinical recommendations for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and the increase
in commercial pet foods containing EPA and DHA make the topic important to revisit. First, basic
concepts of fatty acid metabolism are discussed.
Potential adverse effects that are discussed include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse
effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin
exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity,
and nutrient-drug interactions. These adverse effects are summarized in both general and specific manners
in Table 1.
From the Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists, Houston, TX (Lenox); and the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and Faculty of Nutrition, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX (Bauer).
Corresponding author: Dr. Catherine E. Lenox, Gulf Coast
Veterinary Specialists, 1111 West Loop South Suite 140, Houston,
TX 77027; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted June 29, 2012; Revised October 9, 2012;
Accepted November 21, 2012.
Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal
J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:217–226
Basic Concepts of Fatty Acid Metabolism Dietary fatty acids can be classified as saturated
(containing no double bonds), monounsaturated (containing 1 double bond), or polyunsaturated (containing
2 double bonds). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be classified further as omega-6 or omega-3 depending on the location of the 1st double bond from the methyl (omega) end of the molecule.
Fatty acids frequently are described using a shorthand notation based on the number of carbons in the fatty
acid chain, the number of double bonds in the fatty acid, and whether the fatty acid is omega-6 or omega-
3, if applicable. For example, linoleic acid (LA) contains 18 carbons and 2 double bonds with the 1st
double bond occurring after the 6th carbon atom from the methyl end of the structure and designated as
Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids are long-chain PUFAs and include EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). These
fatty acids are characterized by 5 or 6 double bonds with the 1st one occurring between the 3rd and 4th
carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain.
Theoretically, EPA and DHA can be derived from another omega-3 fatty acid, ALA (18:3n-3). ALA is
found in plant products such as flaxseed oil and can be converted to EPA and DHA by desaturation (addition
of double bonds to the fatty acid chain) and elongation (addition of an even number of carbons to the
fatty acid chain). However, in mammals, ALA is not efficiently converted to EPA and DHA. The conversion
rate of ALA to EPA and DHA is believed to be <10% in humans,19,20 and also is believed to be rather
limited in dogs21,22 and cats.23,24 Therefore, when supplementing omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil is a more
potent and efficient source of EPA and DHA as Table 1. Summary of general and specific abnormalities or adverse effects noted with usage of omega-3 fatty
acids in dogs and cats.
General Abnormality or Adverse Effect Specific Abnormality or Adverse Effect Implicated Fatty Acid Types and Dosesa
Altered platelet function Decreased platelet aggregation (cats) n-6:n-3 = 1.3:1 (no specific dosage of fatty acids mentioned)38
GI adverse effects Vomiting, diarrhea, pancreatitis EPA + DHA 0.79 and 1.98 mg/100 kcal13
Altered wound healing Decreased epithelialization of wounds
after five days (dogs)
n-6:n-3 = 0.3:1 (EPA and DHA from fish oil)55
Lipid peroxidation Increased plasma and urine thiobarbituric reactive substances
n-6:n-3 = 5.4:1 (ALA = 0.7 g/kg diet, EPA = 1.05 g/kg, and
DHA = 0.95 g/kg)
n-6:n-3 = 1.4:1 (ALA = 0.85 g/kg diet, EPA = 3.0 g/kg, and
DHA = 2.65 g/kg)57
Decreased plasma vitamin E concentration (dogs)
n-6:n-3 = 1.4:1 (ALA, EPA, and DHA same as above)57
Nutrient excess, toxin exposure, or both
Consumption of heavy metals
Consumption of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls Hypervitaminosis A and D
No clinical reports in cats or dogs. Development of clinical signs would be product and batch dependent.
Weight gain Obesity, weight gain, or failure to induce weight loss
No clinical reports in cats or dogs. 1 teaspoon of oil = 40–45 kcal67
Altered immune function Decreased skin and neutrophil leukotriene B4 / increased
leukotriene B5 (dogs)
n-6:n-3 = 10:1 and 5:1 (blend of menhaden fish oil
Decreased neutrophil leukotriene B4 / increased leukotriene B5 (dogs)
ALA = 0.23 g/100 g diet, EPA = 3.07 g/100 g,
DHA = 1.00 g/100 g versus ALA = 10.30 g/100 g diet and
EPA and DHA not detected35
Lower delayed-type hypersensitivity
n-6:n-3 = 1.4:1 (ALA = 0.85 g/kg diet, EPA = 3.0 g/kg,
and DHA = 2.65 g/kg)57; n-6:n-3 = 1.4:1
(ALA = 0.5–0.6 g/kg diet, EPA = 1.9 g/kg,
DHA = 2.2–2.5 g/kg)70
Decreased CD4+ T lymphocyte
n-6:n-3 = 1.4:1 (low ALA/high EPA and DHA)71
Decreased lymphocyte proliferation
EPA 1.75 g/kg diet, DHA 2.2 g/kg diet58
Higher skin leukotriene B5 (cats) n-6:n-3 = 5:1 (fish oil not flaxseed oil)73
Decreased response to histamine (cats) n-6:n-3 = 5:1 (fish oil and flaxseed oil)73
Effects on glycemic control
and insulin sensitivity
Improved glucose control and
decreased serum insulin
EPA = 3.91% of fatty acids in diet and DHA = 4.72% versus
EPA = 0.37% and DHA = 0.46%77
Nutrient-drug interactions Dependent on the drug and dosage No clinical reports in cats or dogs
aDoses reported in the same manner as the reference cited.
218 Lenox and Bauer
compared with products rich in ALA such as flaxseed, linseed, or canola oil. Supplementation of ALA does
have benefits, especially in management of dermatologic disease,2 but different omega-3 fatty acids have
different effects on the body and on disease.
Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids are used for management of the aforementioned diseases primarily because
of their anti-inflammatory properties. However,inflammation does not play a major role in the pathogenesis
of all of these disorders (eg, some cardiovasculardiseases, hyperlipidemia). In these instances,
omega-3 fatty acids are believed to have beneficial effects in addition to their role in decreasing inflammation.
For example, omega-3 fatty acids are thought to have antitumor effects1 and effects on blood lipid
concentrations,5,6,25 and improved receptor and ion channel functions.26,27
Omega-6 fatty acids have a double bond between the 6th and 7th carbon from the omega-end of the fatty acid
molecule. One of the omega-6 fatty acids is LA, which is considered essential in all mammals because of lack of
the enzyme needed for its synthesis.24,28 Linoleic acid is efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6)
in dogs, but not in cats. Delta-6 desaturase regulates the 1st step in the desaturation of essential fatty acids; it adds a double bond between the 6th and 7th carbons from the carboxyl end of the fatty acid.29 Cats have a
dietary requirement for AA because of limited delta-6 desaturase activity.23
Lipid metabolites, also called eicosanoids, are derived from long-chain PUFAs and include prostaglandins
and leukotrienes. Eicosanoids can act as inflammatory mediators.30 Arachidonic acid in plasma
membranes serves as a substrate for production of eicosanoids of the 2-series of prostaglandins and 4-series
of leukotrienes by the action of cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases.15,16,31 In contrast, EPA and DHA in
plasma membranes result in production of different eicosanoids (mainly the 3-series of prostaglandins and
5-series of leukotrienes) that are less proinflammatory compared with those derived from AA.15,16,31 The production
of these less proinflammatory eicosanoids results in EPA and DHA being characterized as antiinflammatory.
These effects can be observed after dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and
after incorporation into plasma membranes of tissues.32
When fish oil omega-3 fatty acids are administered, they can be given as a supplement separate from the
diet (such as a liquid or capsule containing fish oil) or as part of the animal’s diet. The amount of omega-3
fatty acids supplemented can be expressed as an absolute amount (total milligrams of EPA and DHA), a
milligram per kilogram dosage, or as a dietary omega-6 to omega-3 (n-6:n-3) ratio. The total n-6:n-3 should be
used with caution, because it does not reflect the total amount of omega-3 fatty acids present in the diet or
the type of omega-3 fatty acids present.
The total n-6:n-3 ratio has been used extensively in reports because there is competition between LA and
ALA for enzymes that desaturate and elongate these fatty acids.33 However, this ratio should be used with
care because, in most instances, it is calculated using total omega-3 fatty acids (ALA, EPA, and DHA). The
use of the total omega-3 concentration is not bioequivalent to the EPA and DHA concentration, because of
the poor conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA and because ALA does not have the same biologic effects
as the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Consequently,
many researchers consider the total intake of the in ividual omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids to be more
important than their ratio.33,34 The n-6:n-3 ratio can be altered in several ways. The omega-3 fatty acid
concentration could be increased, decreased, or unchanged resulting in either an increase or decrease
in the n-6:n-3 ratio. Waldron et al found that in dogs fed 2 different diets with the same n-6:n-3 ratio but
with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (linseed oil versus menhaden fish oil), neutrophil function was
affected differently.35 Thus, the type and amount of omega-3 fatty acids are likely more influential
compared with the total n-6:n-3 ratio.
Although the n-6:n-3 ratio has been used primarily in many of the studies described in this review, to the
extent possible and when reported, it will be pointed out when long-chain omega-3 PUFAs were used, when
an unknown combination of ALA and long-chain omega-3 PUFAs was used, and how the ratio was calculated.
Many of these adverse effects are theoretical at this time. The fact that many of the studies cited
used the n-6:n-3 ratio as opposed to specifying the total omega-3 fatty acid dosage or EPA and DHA
concentration make the results of many of the studies difficult to interpret with respect to actual amounts
Altered Platelet Function
In addition to serving as a substrate for the production of eicosanoids via cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases,
the presence of AA in phospholipid membranes also results in production of thromboxane
A2, a potent platelet activator. Thromboxane A2 is essential for normal platelet function.36 The presence
of EPA and DHA leads to production of thromboxane A3, which is a less potent platelet activator than
thromboxane A2.37,38 Supplementation of EPA and DHA, therefore, may affect platelet activation and
function differently than omega-6 fatty acid supplementation because of the different eicosanoids
Decreased platelet activity and aggregation has been detected in humans supplemented with EPA and DHA
and may lead to an antithrombotic effect. Guillot et al dosed healthy adult men with 200–1,600 mg DHA for
8 weeks and reported decreased platelet reactivity,39 whereas Wensing et al dosed healthy elderly humans
with 1.6 g EPA and DHA for 6 weeks and reported decreased ex vivo platelet aggregation.40
The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on coagulation also have been examined in cats and dogs. Two studies
have involved cats,38,41 and the results were mixed.
Saker et al noted prolonged bleeding time and Adverse Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids 219
decreased platelet aggregation in cats after supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids at an n-6:n-3 ratio of
1.3:1 for 16 weeks.38 The actual dosage of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids was not mentioned in this
study, making results difficult to interpret. Bright et al did not document a measurable effect on hemostasis
after supplementation of cats with EPA and DHA for 8 weeks (1.126 g EPA and 0.624 g DHA per day for
4 weeks, then 1.689 g EPA and 0.936 g DHA per day for 4 weeks).41 This is a very large dose of EPA and
DHA (1,800–2,800 mg/day, which is equivalent to nine 1,000-mg capsules of typical fish oil or 2 teaspoons of
liquid fish oil daily).
The effects of EPA and DHA have been examined in dogs and have revealed either only small changes or
no change in platelet aggregation. Boudreaux et al fed laboratory dogs diets with differing n-6:n-3 ratios for
12 weeks, with the lowest at an n-6:n-3 ratio of 5:1, and did note small changes in platelet reactivity, but
did not consider them clinically relevant. No total dose of omega-3 fatty acids, but only the n-6:n-3 ratio,37
was reported in this study. LeBlanc et al fed laboratory dogs diets with an n-6:n-3 ratio of 3.4:1 with or
without vitamin E (again, no total dose was reported) for 12 weeks and saw no significant effects on platelet
function.25 McNiel et al fed a diet with fish oil (EPA, 29 g/kg diet and DHA, 24 g/kg diet on dry matter
basis) and arginine at 140 9 BW(kg)0.75 kcal metabolizable energy per day to dogs with naturally occurring
lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma and did not see an effect on platelet aggregation or platelet count when
compared with dogs with the same malignancies fed with a control diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.42 In
addition, the investigators did not note clinical bleeding at venipuncture sites or during catheter placement.
Although changes in platelet function were not seen in all 3 of the studies performed in dogs, 2 of them25,37
did not report the total amount of omega-3 fatty acids fed, just the total n-6:n-3 ratio. Many commercial
products contain unknown amounts of ALA, making results difficult to interpret. In addition, all of the studies
that are currently available for review use platelet aggregometry, although other instruments such as
thromboelastography platelet mapping and plateletfunction analyzers currently exist.43,44 The more
recently available instrumentation may be more sensitive for detecting slight changes in platelet function.
Future studies using defined amounts of either ALA or EPA and DHA and more sophisticated instrumentation
will be needed to better determine any effects omega-3 fatty acids have on platelet function.
Although omega-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease platelet aggregation, a clinically relevant effect
on bleeding in normal humans is not expected.45 Therefore, even if there were a measurable effect of omega-3
fatty acids on hemostasis in dogs or cats using different instrumentation, it may not be immediately clinically
relevant. However, if mildly decreased platelet function in omega-3 fatty acid supplemented companion animal
patients is combined with thrombocytopenia caused by disease, the mild decrease in platelet function could
become clinically relevant.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects
Adverse gastrointestinal effects are seen frequently and are commonly reported in clinical patients supplemented
with dietary omega-3 fatty acids. With veterinarians using high dosages of omega-3 fatty acids to
treat clinical disease (up to EPA and DHA = 53 g/kg
diet on dry matter basis)1,42 adverse gastrointestinal effects are a concern. If fatty acids are undigested, they
pass into the upper gastrointestinal tract where they can act as a substrate for bacteria, and this dietary fat
may result in secretory diarrhea.46,47 Dogs that receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements have been reported to
develop diarrhea as an adverse effect. Adverse gastrointestinal effects, including diarrhea and vomiting, are
reported as a reason for discontinuing supplementation in research studies.4,13 Clinical patients also develop
gastrointestinal signs after supplementation. Roudebush et al. reported that as many as 10% of dogs with
neoplastic disease that were fed a high-fat canned diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids in conjunction with other
cancer therapy developed an abnormal feces consistency.
48 Development of adverse gastrointestinal effects can occur even more frequently than reported, but the
effects are dose-dependent. Recommendations for management of diarrhea associated with omega-3 fatty acid
supplementation include slowly transitioning the animalto the high fat diet (or to a high dose of a dietary
fat supplement such as concentrated omega-3 fatty acids), adding fiber to the diet, or using antibiotics.48
Probiotics or prebiotics also could be used. Clinical patients that develop diarrhea or other adverse gastrointestinal effects may need a decreased dosage of omega-3 fatty acids as well as other dietary
Pancreatitis also is a concern when feeding high fat diets or high doses of fatty acid supplementation, especially
in dogs with a known risk of pancreatitis. However,there are no reports of omega-3 fatty acid or fish
oil supplements causing pancreatitis in dogs, cats, or humans. Theoretically, omega-3 fatty acids could
prevent pancreatitis because of decreased blood triglyceride concentrations. An extremely high dosage of
omega-3 fatty acids or a fish oil supplement in addition to a very high fat diet would likely be required to
Detrimental Effects on Wound Healing The stages of wound healing include inflammation, repair, and maturation.49 Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for management of inflammatory diseases because of their anti-inflammatory properties, wound healing is dependent on some degree of inflammation.
The inflammatory stage of wound healing is characterized by migration of leukocytes into the
wounded area and is initiated within 6 hours of trauma. Cytokines are involved in this process and are
220 Lenox and Bauer essential for attracting leukocytes to the area.49
Because inflammation is essential for the process of wound healing, decreasing inflammation with omega-3
fatty acids could be detrimental to patients with extensive wounds caused by trauma or in the postoperative
period. This is a problem that could occur in addition to effects of omega-3 fatty acids on hemostasis.
Numerous studies have been performed in rats in which researchers investigated the effects of supplemental
omega-3 fatty acids on wound healing. As a whole, results are conflicting. Albina et al50 and Otranto
et al51 reported that feeding rats with diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids resulted in delayed wound healing.
However, in another study, Gercek et al did not observe detrimental effects on wound healing after parenteral
fish oil infusion in dexamethasone-treated rats.52
Results from studies using companion animals suggest that wound healing is not affected by omega-3
fatty acid supplementation.53–55 Corbee et al used an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet in client-owned cats
with feline chronic gingivitis and stomatitis and did not see an effect on the degree of inflammation or
wound healing. However, the percentage of EPA and DHA in the enriched diet was relatively low (0.83%
versus 0.10% in the control diet).53 Mooney et al made small wounds in purpose-bred dogs and did not
observe an effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on wound healing.54 In these studies, the n-6:n-3 ratio
was the main method of reporting dietary omega-3 fatty acids. The n-6:n-3 ratios ranged from 10:1 to
40:1 (Corbee et al; EPA = 0.03–0.46% of total fatty acids, DHA = 0.07–0.37%) or from 5:1 to 100:1
(Mooney et al; omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and flaxseed oil = 0.4–3.4% of total fatty acids), which are
higher ratios than that used by Albina et al (<1:1).
The ratios do not give accurate information on the EPA and DHA concentration of the diet. The diet
with the lower n-6:n-3 ratio in the Corbee et al study contained added fish oil, but not flaxseed oil. Mooney
et al used a combination of fish oil and flaxseed oil to produce the final n-6:n-3 ratio reported. In another
study on omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and wound healing, Scardino et al used a diet with an n-6:n-
3 ratio of 0.3:1 and supplemented purpose-bred dogs for 30 days before wound formation.55 In this study, the
dogs consuming the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet, which contained menhaden fish oil as the source of
omega-3 fatty acids (actual dose not reported), had less epithelialization of open wounds after 5 days.
There were no differences compared with the dogs consuming the control diet supplemented with soya oil
after 10 days. These authors suggest that there may be short term, but not long-term effects on wound healing
with high amounts of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.
Potential for adverse effects on wound healing may be greatest immediately after trauma or surgery. The
effect on wound healing likely depends on the amount and type of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, the duration
of supplementation, and the severity of the wound.
Given these results, it may be wise to discontinue high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (either dietary or supplemental) before surgery to avoid interference with inflammation and wound healing.
Lipid peroxidation is characterized by a free radical attack on an unsaturated fatty acid and can occur in
the presence of oxygen.56 Long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA, DHA, and AA are at
high risk to undergo peroxidation. When fish oil omega-3 fatty acids are supplemented, EPA and
DHA accumulate in cell membranes. If antioxidants are not provided at adequate concentrations, membrane
phospholipid fatty acids can be vulnerable to peroxidation and free radicals can form as a result.57
Lipid peroxidation can be detrimental because of effects on the stability of cell membranes and also as
a result of free radical attacks on proteins and DNA.18,56
Lipid peroxidation and free radical and other byproduct formation potentially could negatively affect
patient tolerance of dietary supplements.45 Fish oil is especially unstable because of the highly unsaturated
fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in fish oil preparations.
Effects of lipid peroxidation can be avoided by supplementing diets enriched in omega-3 fatty acids with
antioxidants such as vitamin E or by adding vitamin E to omega-3 fatty acid purified supplements.18,57 Peroxidation can occur in both the product itself and within the body. Adding vitamin E (specifically alpha-tocopherol) to supplements can decrease lipid peroxidation and thus limit rancidity and increase freshness and
shelf-life of supplements.45 Vitamin E is a hydrogen donor to free radicals and prevents oxidative damage
to PUFAs in membranes.28 Because of the high risk for lipid peroxidation, it is prudent to check supplements
for adequate amounts of antioxidants. It may be necessary to call the manufacturer to obtain this
Studies on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipid peroxidation are conflicting. LeBlanc et al noted no
change in plasma lipid oxidative byproduct concentrations after 12 weeks of fish oil supplementation to
young dogs (n-6:n-3 = 3.4:1, EPA = 1.75 g/kg diet and DHA = 2.2 g/kg diet on dry matter basis).25 In
another study by LeBlanc et al, no changes were noted in plasma lipid peroxide concentrations feeding dogs
the same diet the same amount of time as in the aforementioned study.58 Wander et al. noted increased
amounts of lipid oxidative by-products (plasma and urine thiobarbituric reactive substances) after supplementing dogs with fish oil at a dietary n-6:n-3 ratio of 5.4:1 (ALA = 0.7 g/kg diet, EPA = 1.05 g/kg diet, and DHA = 0.95 g/kg diet) and 1.4:1 (ALA = 0.85 g/kg diet, EPA = 3.0 g/kg diet, and DHA = 2.65 g/kg diet).
No adverse effects were noted in these dogs.57
Although the clinical adverse effects of lipid peroxidation are somewhat unclear, they may be manifested
as vitamin E deficiency. Wander et al noted decreased Adverse Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids 221
plasma vitamin E concentration in dogs fed a diet enriched with fish oil using an n-6:n-3 ratio of 1.4:1.57
Both the amount of long-chain PUFAs in a supplement or in the patient’s diet and the degree of peroxidation
that occurs before consumption can affect requirements for vitamin E.28 Dietary vitamin E requirements increase with high concentrations of dietary PUFAs.28,59 Signs of vitamin E deficiency include
muscle weakness caused by muscle degeneration, retinal degeneration, and steatitis, especially in cats.28
Some authors suggest that cats will refuse diets containing peroxidized lipids60; however, there are reports
of cats developing pansteatitis after consuming oily fish-based diets.61
Potential for Toxin Exposure and Nutrient Excess
Supplementation of fish oil has the potential to expose patients to environmental toxins. Consumption
of high quantities of fish or fish oil can increase exposure to heavy metals such as mercury or chemicals
such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins.
18,45 However, it appears that the risk of toxin exposure and related clinical signs is
low overall.45 In Inuit preschool-aged children (in a population that consumes a large amount of fish),
prenatal exposure to mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides did not cause adverse effects on
neurologic function.62 Fish-based diets and fish oil supplements, when fed on long term, could potentially
cause mercury toxicity.63 Clinical signs are more common in cats than dogs because of the frequency
of feeding fish-based diets to cats, and include anorexia, ataxia, blindness, and seizures.64 Clinical signs
of mercury toxicity in dogs include neurologic dysfunction, gastrointestinal signs including vomiting and
Hypervitaminosis is a concern with fish oil supplements such as cod liver oil, especially when they are
supplemented at high dosages. Fat-soluble vitamins, especially vitamins D and A, are more of a concern
than water-soluble vitamins because most watersoluble vitamins do not accumulate in tissue. There have
been no reports in humans of vitamin D or A toxicity associated with fish oil supplementation and although
the potential for toxicity exists, it is low.45,66 Even at a high dosage of supplementation such as 220 mg fish oil per kilogram body weight it would be difficult to reach the safe upper limit for vitamins D and A. The safe upper limits for a 10 kg dog are 14.6 lg cholecalciferol (584 international units) and 11,804 retinol
equivalents of vitamin A.28
Overall, with the diversity of therapeutic uses for fish oil, the benefits of fish oil intake likely outweigh
the risks of toxin exposure and nutrient excess. Veterinarians should inquire about the mercury and
toxin concentrations of fish oil supplements before prescribing them to clinical patients. Contacting the
manufacturer may be necessary to ascertain this information.
Although weight gain is not a commonly noted adverse effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation,
the calories that oil contains should be a concern. Fat is the most energy dense nutrient when compared with
protein or carbohydrate, and each gram of oil contains about 9 kcal.67 One teaspoon (5 ml) of oil contains
about 42 kcal.67 Weight gain could occur when large dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are recommended, such
as for dogs with osteoarthritis or neoplastic disease.
Published recommendations for dogs with neoplastic disease include adding 12–20 fish oil capsules per day
for a 10 kg dog.48 This represents 108–180 kcal of fish oil per day whereas the resting energy requirements for a 10 kg dog are <400 kcal/day. In many dogs, especially in obese or obesity-prone dogs, veterinarians
must be cautious about the addition of large dosages of omega-3 fatty acids, either in the diet or supplemented in addition to the diet. The calories that are in the oil should be accounted for when developing a nutrition plan for these animals and if a large quantity of omega-3 fatty acids is supplemented in addition to the diet, it may unbalance the pet’s diet. One way to avoid this issue is to use a commercial diet that is supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids at the desired dosage.
However, it is difficult to find a commercial diet containing sufficient concentrations of EPA and DHA.
Altered Immune Function Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes are involved in the immune response, and suppressing production of the “proinflammatory” forms of these products by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids can alter immune function. Neutrophil functions that are mediated by leukotriene B4 can be inhibited by supplementing fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. Lee et al supplemented healthy human subjects with 5.4 g EPA and DHA daily and noted decreased production of leukotriene B4 as well as decreased chemotactic responses and adherence of neutrophils.68
Vaughn et al noted similar effects in dogs. After supplementing various concentrations of dietary omega-3
fatty acids from menhaden oil and flaxseed to produce n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 25:1, 50:1, and 100:1 for
12 weeks, skin and neutrophil leukotriene B4 concentrations were decreased whereas leukotriene B5 concentrations were increased in the dogs consuming higher levels of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.69 Waldron et al investigated the effects of diets enriched in linseed oil and fish oil on neutrophil leukotriene B4 production.
In this study, dogs fed with diets containing more EPA and DHA (the fish oil-supplemented diet,
EPA = 3.07% diet on an as fed basis, DHA = 1.00%) had significantly lower neutrophil leukotriene B4
production compared with dogs fed with the linseed oil-supplemented diet. In addition, dogs consuming
menhaden fish oil had higher leukotriene B5 production compared with dogs consuming linseed oil, despite
the fact that the 2 diets had nearly identical n-6:n-3 222 Lenox and Bauer ratios.35 However, the ex vivo nature of these studies makes determining clinical relevance of the changes in leukotriene concentrations difficult. Neutrophil function was not measured. Leukotriene B4 is an initiator
of neutrophil recruitment, chemotaxis, and degranulation, whereas leukotriene B5 is a less active ligand at
the leukotriene B receptor.68,69 The Waldron et al study35 provides evidence supporting the idea that not
all omega-3 fatty acids are equal and that fatty acid composition is more important that total n-6:n-3 ratio.
Diets supplemented with ALA are not biologically equivalent to diets supplemented with EPA and DHA.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation also can affect hypersensitivity reactions as measured by the results of
the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test. In the previously mentioned Wander et al study, researchers
fed healthy geriatric Beagles diets with n-6:n-3 ratios of 31:1, 5.4:1, and 1:1 (the lower n-6:n-3 diets were
supplemented with fish oil) and noted a lower DTH response in the group consuming a n-6:n-3 ratio of
1.4:1 versus a n-6:n-3 ratio of 5.4:1 or 31:1.57 Hall et al fed healthy geriatric Beagles diets with n-6:n-3 ratios of approximately 40:1 and 1.4:1 with varying concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and noted a
suppressed DTH response in dogs fed with the lower n-6:n-3 ratio, regardless of the concentration of dietary
vitamin E. The lower n-6:n-3 ratio was created by adding fish oil. In this study, antibody titers against a foreign protein were unaffected by diet.70
There are other potential mechanisms of altered immune function after omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.
Lymphocyte numbers also may be affected. In another study by Hall et al, geriatric Beagles were fed
diets with 3 different n-6:n-3 ratios (31:1, 5.4:1, and 1.4:1) for 11 weeks. Fish oil was the source of the
omega-3 fatty acids in the diets with lower n-6:n-3 ratios. The dogs fed with the diet with a n-6:n-3 ratio
of 1.4:1 (EPA = 3.0 g/kg diet and DHA = 2.75 g/kg) had higher total lymphocyte counts but lower CD4+
T lymphocyte counts, and lower CD4+ to CD8+ ratios after vaccination with foreign proteins when
compared with dogs fed with lower dietary concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids.71 The clinical relevance
of this decrease is uncertain despite its statistical significance.
Hall et al also noted that neutrophil bactericidal activity was unaffected by dietary fish oil
supplementation at varying concentrations up to EPA = 0.25% of diet on an as fed basis and
DHA = 0.17% in healthy dogs.72 LeBlanc et al fed dogs with a diet enriched in fish oil with a n-6:n-3
ratio of 3.4:1 (EPA = 1.75 g/kg diet, DHA = 2.2 g/kg) and noted decreased lymphocyte proliferation as measured using flow cytometry after 12 weeks.58
There are fewer studies published on the effects of dietary fatty acid manipulation on immune function
in cats, but results are similar to those studies performed in dogs. Park et al supplemented flaxseed oil
and fish oil at a n-6:n-3 ratio of 5:1 and noted higher skin leukotriene B5 concentration in the cats fed
higher dietary concentrations of fish oil, suggesting that fish oil (containing EPA and DHA) is more
immunosuppressive than flaxseed oil (containing ALA).73 These results are similar to those of the
Waldron et al study35 in the sense that results from both studies suggest that different omega-3 fatty acids
have different effects.
Although the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on immune function are not clearly known,
there is potential for altered immune function with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids. Whether the
changes noted in the aforementioned studies are clinically relevant remains unknown.
Effects on Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity
In an earlier review article on adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, hyperglycemia
was listed as a potential adverse effect.18 Results of early studies performed with human subjects are mixed,
with some authors suggesting that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation causes hyperglycemia and others indicating that omega-3 fatty acids may actually improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Glauber et al74 noted a significant increase in fasting blood glucose concentration after 1 month of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Feskens et al,75 on the contrary, noted a protective effect of fish intake against the development of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in elderly human subjects. In another study, dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during energy restriction resulted in improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese young adults.76
In cats, authors suggest that dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids results in improved insulin
sensitivity. In one study by Wilkins et al, the authors concluded that in obese research cats, a diet with
supplemented omega-3 fatty acids appeared to maintain insulin sensitivity.77 In this study, the omega-3
fatty acid-enriched diet contained 1.01% ALA, 3.91% EPA, and 4.72% DHA (percentages indicate percent of
dietary fatty acids). The control (saturated fatty acid)diet contained 0.68% ALA, 0.37% EPA, and 0.46%
DHA.77 Another group found correlations between serum EPA concentrations and serum insulin concentrations
in obese cats.78 Cats that had significantly higher serum EPA concentrations had lower insulin
concentrations and vice versa. These were client-owned cats and were not consuming a standardized diet.
Although it does not appear that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids causes hyperglycemia in cats,
more studies are needed before omega-3 fatty acids are recommended to diabetic patients, especially dogs. In
addition, although improved insulin sensitivity would be beneficial in many patients, caution should be used
in diabetic patients receiving insulin and concurrent omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.
Nutrient–Drug Interactions In addition to direct adverse effects from omega-3 fatty acids, there is potential for nutrient-drug interactions. In humans, omega-3 fatty acids can interact with
simvastatin to decrease blood lipid concentrations.79 In companion animals, the efficacy of some drugs, including doxorubicin, has been investigated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Omega-3 fatty acids did
not affect doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in a study performed in dogs.80 For other drugs, nutrient-drug
interactions may exacerbate adverse effects that can occur with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation alone,
or they may create other adverse effects not listed above. In humans, omega-3 fatty acids and aspirin
have a synergistic effect on bleeding times when supplemented together.81 Although it seems as though
aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids affect platelet function in different manners (irreversible inhibition versus
competitive inhibition with AA),81 the synergistic effect of aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids on platelet function is an example of a nutrient-drug interaction. Given the frequency of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in conjunction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration,14 this is one possible area for nutrientdrug interactions in dogs. Carprofen administration has been demonstrated to affect hemostasis as measured using thromboelastography.82 Concurrent administration of carprofen and omega-3 fatty acids potentially could negatively impact hemostasis similar to the combination of aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Omega-3 fatty acids and clopidogrel may interact in a similar manner.
Currently, omega-3 fatty acids are used in managing many diseases including neoplasia,1 dermatologic disease,
2–4 hyperlipidemia,5,6 cardiovascular disease,7,8 renal disease,9,10 gastrointestinal disease,11 and orthopedic disease.13–16 There are other disease processes or conditions for which they may be beneficial, including neurologic diseases,83 asthma,84 and behavioral issues.85 The therapeutic effects of fish oil are discussed elsewhere.86
Adverse effects, if observed, are likely to be dosedependent.
It is necessary to understand dosages of omega-3 fatty acids to understand how much fish oil to supplement, or what dietary concentration to aim for when recommending omega-3 supplementation.
Provision of omega-3 fatty acids can be expressed as milligrams of total omega-3 fatty acids per kilogram
body weight; as milligrams of EPA and DHA per kilogram body weight or metabolic body weight; as a
dietary amount on a per energy basis (grams or milligrams per 100 or per 1,000 kcal); or as a dietary
amount on a per weight basis (grams or milligrams per 100 grams of diet as fed or on dry matter basis). The
amount of omega-3 fatty acids also can be expressed as a ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids, or as a ratio of “functional” fatty acids (LA + AA:EPA + DHA). The same enzymes are involved in metabolism of omega-6 and
omega-3 fatty acids, resulting in competition between these fatty acids for incorporation into cell membranes
and other biological properties. Therefore, dietary excess or deficiency of LA versus ALA may influence
conversion rates to downstream products. Dietary amounts of omega-6 versus omega-3 fatty acids are
frequently expressed as a dietary n-6:n-3 ratio in addition to absolute amounts for this reason. However,
ALA is not equivalent to EPA and DHA and the total n-6:n-3 ratio by itself does not accurately describe the
fatty acid composition of the diet. A product with a high total omega-3 fatty acid concentration could contain
high concentrations of ALA, high concentrations of EPA and DHA, or a combination of these fatty
acids. Because diets with ALA have different effects when compared with diets enriched in EPA and DHA,
the type of omega-3 fatty acids is crucial information and the lack of distinction between these fatty acids
may contribute to the equivocal nature of results of earlier studies.
Unfortunately, all drugs, dietary supplements, or nutraceuticals have the potential for adverse effects.
Despite the benefits listed above, there are potential risks associated with usage of omega-3 fatty acids. Clinicians should understand the adverse effects that may occur with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and
that potential risks should be assessed in conjunction with the potential benefits. The National Research
Council publication on Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats indicates a safe upper limit of the combined
amounts of EPA + DHA as 2,800 mg/1,000 kcal of diet, equivalent to 370 mg per (kg body weight)0.75
for dogs.28 This is equivalent to 2,080 mg for a 10 kg dog. Presently, not enough published data are available
to set a safe upper limit for cats.
Conflict of Interest Declaration: The authors disclose no conflict of interest.
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ps. forse conviene spostare la discussione in un post sugli omega 3…Giugno 8, 2014 alle 3:48 pm #69866
Comprendo il tuo punto di vista (ti ringrazio per la stima, che è comunque reciproca), forse la mia affermazione era un po’ superficiale, ogni situazione va valutata separatamente tenendo conto del cane che si deve alimentare.
Non conoscevo le proprietà dei lignani, cercherò di documentarmi un po’. Comunque mi reputo anche io un conservatore, preferisco non seguire le mode e rimanere cauto nelle integrazioni. Domani mi leggo l’articolo che hai postato.Luglio 17, 2014 alle 1:57 pm #73393
- Genere: Maschio
ricopio anche qui questo prezioso riscontro
Ho letto con piacere il topic che mi hai consigliato sugli omega3/6: visto che sono un medico (…di umani),vi posso confermare che ormai gli omega 3/6 stanno passando di moda, parchè, ad esempio,inibiscono la cagulazione delle piastrine, si ossidano facilmente, qs vale nche per l’olio di lino,aumentano troppo la permeabilità delle membrane cellulari, possono dare aritmia. Io li prescrivo per periodi di integrazione brevi e consiglio che è MOLTO meglio assumerli dagli alimenti. Servono invece dal quarto mese di gravidanza. fino a tutto il primo anno di vita per la maturazione del sistema nervoso. Si è visto che sciolgono le protesi valvolari cardiache. Quindi, visto che il cane fra tutti gli animali è il più simile all’ uomo per composizione delle membrane cellulari….infatti è l’ unico animale che come noi si ammala di depressione. Ci sono dei ricercatori che hanno notato che in estate la concentrazione di omega 3 nel sangue di cane aumenta, questo si pensa che possa accadereper il fatto che, poichè gli omega inibiscono la coagulazione delle piastrine, il microrganismo della filaria, che appunto è più infettante d’estate e favorisce che le piastrine si aggreghino, circola nel sangue con più difficoltà:sarebbe un autodifesa che il cane mette in atto contro la filaria.Novembre 26, 2014 alle 12:32 am #84706
La spirulina l’ho usata per un anno, la compravo in Inghilterra ma sinceramente non mi sembra che servaNovembre 26, 2014 alle 12:45 am #84709
Se la dieta é bilanciata, non serve. Io uso l’alga klamath (che é meglio della spirulina), come fonte di prebiotici.Novembre 26, 2014 alle 1:50 am #84711
- Genere: Maschio
secondo me dovrebbe essere VIETATO PER LEGGE di somministrare al cane integratori così costosi come le alghe di cui state parlando, ma anche certi olii non meno pregiati.
già c’é TROPPA SPECULAZIONE nel mercato dell’alimentazione complementare umana, non incoraggiamo lo spreco (da parte dei consumatori) e l’approfittarne (da parte dei venditori)?
sulle alghe “supercibi” ci sono altri riferimenti anche nel topic:
https://www.canedifamiglia.com/index.php/forum/16-quotidianita/13830-integratori-alimentari-per-cani-vitamine-minerali-aminoacidiDicembre 22, 2014 alle 2:29 am #86596
io nei periodi caldi utilizzo l’olio vivo active che dovrebbe avere, oltre che proprietà antiparassitarie (contro i flebotomi), anche un apporto di vitamine e omega 3 ed omega 6
conoscete questo prodotto?
voi fareste qualche integrazione anche in questo periodo (o comunque anche eventualmente in sostituzione dell’olio vivo active)
alla prossima visita (tra un paio di mesi) voglio sottoporre alcune questioni al mio vet e ci voglio arrivare preparato… infatti sto leggendo e cercando info anche sui condroprotettori (ho già trovato un paio di discussioni sul forum ed eventualmente chiederò alcune cose lì)
comunque si tratta di un cane di piccola taglia che ha superato gli 8 anni, e qualche volta mi sembra accenni una leggera zoppia anteriore “random”Dicembre 23, 2014 alle 2:18 am #86708
Una volta usavo lo Zosma come intergatore, la sua formulazione è (era) studiata per il pelo…qualcuno di voi lo conosce?
Simile alla farina al sapore di Miele, il suo impiego originario era per migliorare il pelo degli animali da pelliccia, poi ha subito una sorta di evoluzione per gli animali da compagnia.
Ho smesso di usarlo per via del prezzo troppo proibitivo..Dicembre 30, 2014 alle 4:54 pm #87283
Ieri in un programma medico hanno detto che gli omega 6 sono probabilmente pro-infiammatori e per questo motivo devono essere in giusto rapporto con gli omega 3 che sono antinfiammatori. Ho cercato qua e la ma sembra che queste proprietà infiammatorie degli omega 6 siano state verificate esclusivamente in vitro mentre sul campo non vi siano evidenze scientifiche. Comunque nel dubbio meglio avere un rapporto omega3-6 da 1:3 a 1:5 che vengono da più parti indicati come gli estremi ottimali.Dicembre 30, 2014 alle 9:28 pm #87297
Ciao a tutti, mi chiamo Gabriella e mi sono appena iscritta. Da qualche tempo uso un integratore di Omega-3 EPA/DHA e vitamina E (ad uso umano, lo stesso che uso io) anche nella dieta di Ursula, la mia Rottweiler di 10 anni, che pare avere problemi di colite (la diagnosi è ancora incerta), con buoni risultati sull’intestino, insieme ad un probiotico, sempre ad uso umano, che comunque ha dato ottimi risultati anche per patologie renali su cane e gatto.
Mi sono permessa di intervenire in questa discussione per scrivere che io stessa sono riuscita a curare malattie considerate incurabili (non tumori) e fortemente invalidanti mie personali grazie all’uso di mineralli e vitamine.
Non è semplice scegliere nel mare di speculazioni che vi è su determinati tipi di alimenti/integratori, ho notato infatti che esattamente come in umana anche per gli animali le aziende speculano parecchio e spesso comprando le materie prime si risparmia in maniera considerevole.
Ma venendo all’argomento della discussione, l’integratore che ho scelto è uno dei pochi che è certificato IFOS, perchè con il discorso metalli pesanti a mio parere è meglio non scherzare.
Per i miei animali se posso cerco di dargli quello che si è rivelato utile per me.
Anch’io non credo che esista un unico alimento che possa considerarsi la panacea di ogni male, però sono fermamente convinta, per quello che ho riscontrato sulla mia salute e di altre persone che hanno adottato un’integrazione come la mia, che esiste la possibilità con una corretta sinergia tra minerali e vitamine di migliorare sensibilmente la propria qualità di vita.Dicembre 31, 2014 alle 1:24 am #87319
grazie Ursula, domani ti invio in messaggio privato altre discussioni in cui magari hai qualche elemento da condividere (es. su fitoterapici, ecc.)Dicembre 31, 2014 alle 4:53 pm #87374
mccawModeratore@mccawDicembre 31, 2014 alle 9:37 pm #87403
Ciao Espada e McCaw, mi scuso se non ho scritto subito il nome del prodotto.
Si tratta di Omegor Vitality 1000, uno dei pochi integratori in umana che ha il certificato IFOS.
Troverete in Rete tante testimonianze di persone entusiaste di questo integratore, io lo uso personalmente e lo trovo ottimo, i veterinari me lo hanno approvato.
Una scatola da 45 perle da 1410 mg mi costa € 15,00, ad Ursula ne do una al giorno in uno dei pasti quotidiani.
Il suo pelo è bello lucido e pare che questo integratore la stia aiutando molto a livello intestinale.
Usandolo anch’io posso dirvi che non vi torna su il sapore di pesce, come può succedere con altri integratori dello stesso tipo, in definitiva a me e a lei sta facendo bene.
Altra nota positiva, l’olio di semi di lino spremuto a freddo (verificate sempre che chi lo vende rispetti questa catena di refrigerazione) può non essere gradito agli animali, con le perle il problema è completamente risolto.
In più la presenza di vitamina E naturale è un’ottima cosa per loro (come anche per noi), la vitamina E ha un ruolo importante nella circolazione e non solo.
Se la mia esperienza personale può tornare utile la offro volentieri
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